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    LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 1 Preoperative Care of the Surgical Patient. Thrombophlebitis. the postoperative phase.

    Preoperative Care of the Surgical Patient. GENERAL The patient who consents to have surgery, particularly surgery that requires a general anesthetic, renders himself dependent on the knowledge, skill, and integrity of the health care team, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase.

    In accepting this trust, the health care team members have an obligation to make the patient's welfare their first consideration during the surgical experience. This lesson consists of your duties as a practical nurse to provide preoperative care for the surgical patient. A partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness, as a result of a disease, an injury, or administration of a drug. A Greek word for the slightly bluish-gray or purple discoloration of the skin due to a deficiency of oxygen and an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood.

    Oxygen in the blood makes it look red and gives the skin a pink tone, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase. A group of drugs producing stupor, sleep, or complete unconsciousness; used to allay pain.

    Narcotics are regulated by federal laws. Nothing by mouth Latin, nulli per os. The period extending from the time of hospitalization for surgery to the time of discharge see Figure That phase of the perioperative period during which the nurse admits the patient to the surgical unit and helps the individual prepare physically and emotionally for the operation.

    Refer to Figure An artificial organ or part; for example, an artificial limb, eyeglasses, or dentures. Inflammation of a vein associated with thrombus formation. Teaching the patient and spouse during the preoperative phase B. Nurse handing sponge to surgeon in the operative phase C. Patient being observed and monitored during the recovery phase; and nurse checking patient's bandage during the postoperative phase. There may be specific learning needs about the surgery that the patient and support persons should know.

    A nursing care plan and a teaching plan should be carried out. During this phase, emphasis is placed on: Assessing and correcting physiological and psychological problems that may increase surgical risk. Giving the patient and significant others complete learning and teaching guidelines regarding the surgery.

    Instructing and demonstrating exercises that will benefit the patient postoperatively. Planning for discharge and any projected changes in lifestyle due to the surgery. Surgery is an important event in any individual's life. It represents a serious decision involving the patient's body and his health. It also produces physical and psychological stress on the body relative to the extent of the surgery and injury to the tissue involved, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase.

    The patient must understand what is proposed, understand all the risks, and give his consent. Surgery produces actual physical damage to tissues of the body. The internal organs and tissues of the body are handled by the surgeon and assistants.

    This could lead to bruising of tissues, injury to tissues, or inflammation of tissues that could result in pain after the anesthesia wears off, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase. This puts a patient at risk of microorganisms entering the body and causing Betrieb von Krampfadern an den Beinen Laser. Surgery requires strict attention to aseptic technique, use of sterile materials, and thorough disinfecting of the skin around the operative site.

    These drugs could have a depressant effect on Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase body; they decrease pain and reduce awareness of one's surroundings. The effect on the body systems is to slow the systems down and make them hypoactive. When surgery is needed, one's deepest and worst fears are often felt.

    A preoperative patient may experience a number of fears. However, the following fears are common among surgical patients: Psychological preparation of the patient before surgery can not be overlooked. Along with other members of the health care team, the practical nurse must show warmth, sensitivity, and caring to the patient. Each patient may express his fears in different ways. You may find that a patient may not talk about his fears. He may be quiet and withdrawn, cry, or talk constantly.

    Some patients may prefer pacing, be extremely cheerful, or, on the other hand, exhibit unusual behavior. You, as a practical nurse, must recognize these fears and deal with them properly.

    You can help to manage preoperative fears by: Religious faith can be a strong source of strength. If there are questions that you should not or are unable to answer, refer them to the Charge Nurse or physician. The value of preoperative instruction to the patient is very important. Each patient should be taught as an individual, in Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase of Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase anxieties, need, and hope, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase.

    Patients should be taught postoperative exercises they will be required to do and their role in preventing complications. The postoperative exercises include turning, deep breathing, coughing, and extremity movement. Turning in bed and early ambulation helps patients maintain blood circulation, stimulate respiratory functions, and decrease the stasis of gas in the intestines and resulting discomfort.

    Practice before surgery usually makes it easier Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase the patient to do it postoperatively. In some instances, the patient may need special aids, such as a pillow between the legs, to help maintain body alignment. Patient turned away from the nurse with Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase and legs crossed. Patient turned toward the nurse with arms and legs crossed. Patient on side in middle of bed with a Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase in front of the bottom leg with the top leg on the pillow in flexed position, a pillow against the back, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase small pillow supports the arm and hand, pillow under head and shoulder.

    Deep Breathing Figure Extremity Excercises Watch a video demonstrating leg exercises 1. Deep breathing helps prevent postoperative pneumonia and atelectasis incomplete expansion of the lung or a portion of the lung. In deep breathing, the patient should inhale and exhale as much air as possible. You are Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase explain the procedure and its purpose to the patient.

    Instruct the patient to: Coughing is done to mobilize and expel respiratory system secretions which, because of the effects of anesthesia, tend to pool in the lungs and may cause pneumonia. The patient should be in a sitting or lying position.

    The above steps should be repeated every two hours during the postoperative phase or as prescribed. This is used as a splint to minimize pressure and helps to control pain when the patient is coughing.

    A small pillow or folded towel may be used in place of laced fingers, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase. Encourage the patient to perform deep breathing exercises before coughing. This stimulates Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase reflex. These exercises help to prevent circulatory problems, such as thrombophlebitis, by facilitating venous return to the heart, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase.

    It also decreases postoperative "gas pains, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase. The best time to teach patients is relatively close to the time of surgery, which is usually the afternoon or evening before the surgery. The preoperative patient's chart must be complete before the patient leaves the nursing unit, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase. It will contain all the information that may be needed by the physicians and nurses in the operating room or later in the recovery room, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase.

    DD Form is attached to the front of the patient's chart for easy access by all involved hospital staff. It contains the following information: Any special comment that indicates something very special about this particular patient will go in this block hard of hearing, removal of a prosthesis, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase, etc. Procedures Used to Prepare the Patient's Chart. You will use DD FormSurgical Checklistas a checklist to assemble the patient's chart and to document compliance as each step is completed.

    Enter the patient's identifying information in the patient's identification block. This information may be entered by using the addressograph plate or by hand. If you enter the information by hand, enter the patient's ward, room, and bed in the appropriate block.

    Ensure that all required forms are included, complete as necessary, and in order dictated by local policy, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase. Document compliance or insert form s as necessary. This is the legal document that satisfies the requirement of informed consent.

    Legal age is established on a state-by-state basis. Check the patient's health record Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase inclusion of these forms and document compliance.

    Make an attempt to locate Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase x-ray report and films. Make an attempt to locate written lab reports to place in the patient's chart. Make an attempt to locate the written report to place in the health record. Final Preparation of the Preoperative Patient. Implement doctor's orders for preoperative care. An enema is used to cleanse the colon of fecal material, thus reducing the possibility of wound contamination during surgery.

    An operating room technician or other designated person will clean and shave the area surrounding the side of the planned incision s. Assist the patient with personal hygiene and related care. This is done to remove excess body dirt and oils.

    Nursing Pre-operative Flashcards | Quizlet Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase

    Generally, this transfer is to the unit that the patient was assigned to preoperatively. Since both surgery and anesthesia have unavoidable temporary ill effects on the normal physiological functions, every effort must be made to prevent postoperative complacations.

    From the time Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase patient is admitted to the recovery room Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase the time he or she has recovered from the operation, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase, there are definite goals of care that guide the entire postoperative course. These goals are as follows:. The physician will write orders for postoperative care that are directed at accomplishing the above goals. These orders will center around the promotion of certain physiological functions and areas addressed in the following paragraph.

    Respiratory function is promoted by encouraging frequent coughing and deep breathing. Early movement and ambulation also help to improve respiratory function. For some patients, oxygen therapy may also be ordered to assist respiratory function, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase. Cardiovascular function is assisted by frequent position changes, by early movement and ambulation, and, in some cases, by intravenous therapy.

    Renal function Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase promoted by adequate fluid intake and early movement and ambulation. Nutritional status is promoted by ensuring adequate oral or correct intravenous intake and by maintaining accurate intake and output records. Elimination functions are promoted by adequate diet and fluid intake, Thrombophlebitis postoperative Phase.

    Postoperative patients should be advanced to a normal dietary regimen as soon as possible, since this too promotes elimination functions. Early movement and ambulation also helps to restore normal elimination activities. In addition to various medications and dressing change procedures ordered by the physician, wound healing is promoted by good nutritional intake and by early movement and ambulation.

    Rest and comfort are supported by properly positioning the patient, providing Urlaub Bein mit Krampfadern restful environment, encouraging good basic hygiene measures, ensuring optimal bladder and bowel output, and promptly administering pain-relieving medications.

    Early movement and ambulation are assisted by ensuring maximum comfort for the patient and providing the encouragement and support for ambulating the patient, particularly in the early postoperative period. As indicated in the above discussion, the value of early movement and ambulation, when permissible, cannot be overemphasized.

    During the early postoperative phase, the major complications to be guarded against are respiratory obstruction, shock, and hemorrhage. As the patient progresses in the postoperative period, other complications to avoid are the development of pneumonia, phlebitis and subsequent thrombophlebitis, gastrointestinal problems ranging from abdominal distention to intestinal obstruction, and finally wound infections.

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