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    Horse colic - Wikipedia 英汉日科技词汇(An English-Chinese-Japanese Dictionary of Technology,总数,T/) Persimmon Thrombophlebitis

    Mechanisms of Thrombus Formation — NEJM Persimmon Thrombophlebitis

    N Engl J Med ; Hemostasis is the process that maintains the integrity of a closed, high-pressure circulatory system after vascular damage. Vessel-wall Bein nach der Entfernung von Krampfadern and the extravasation of blood from the circulation rapidly initiate events in the vessel wall and in persimmon Thrombophlebitis that seal the breach.

    Circulating platelets are recruited to the persimmon Thrombophlebitis of injury, where they become a major component of the developing thrombus; blood coagulation, initiated by tissue factor, culminates in the generation of thrombin and fibrin.

    These events occur concomitantly Figure 1A; also see Video, available with the full text of this article at www, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Bruce Furie and Dr. Barbara Furie report receiving annual licensing fees for patents on P-selectin. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

    Activate your online access now. The New England Journal of Medicine. This article is available to subscribers. Sign in now if you're a subscriber. This article has no abstract; the first words appear below. Figure 1 Thrombus Formation In Vivo. The developing thrombus in a living mouse after vessel-wall injury Panel A is characterized by the deposition of platelets redpersimmon Thrombophlebitis, tissue factor greenand fibrin blue.

    Platelet thrombus formation and fibrin deposition occur concomitantly, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Platelets and tissue factor appear yellow; tissue factor and fibrin, turquoise; platelets and fibrin, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, magenta; and platelets, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, fibrin, and tissue factor, white.

    A three-dimensional, confocal optical reconstruction of a thrombus in the lumen of an arteriole Panel B shows the platelet thrombus red and yellow being formed in the vessel wall, which is lined with the endothelium labeled persimmon Thrombophlebitis with antibodies to platelet-endothelial persimmon Thrombophlebitis molecule [PECAM-1]. Calcium is mobilized during platelet activation. Panel C shows platelets loaded with a calcium-sensitive dye during thrombus formation; resting platelets appear green, and activated platelets appear yellow, persimmon Thrombophlebitis.

    Labeled microparticles bearing tissue factor Panel D, green infused into a recipient mouse accumulate in the developing thrombus, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Panel F shows fibrin green and platelets redwhich appear rapidly after vessel-wall injury and form a thrombus; yellow indicates colocalization of fibrin and platelets. In Panel G, inhibition of PDI blocks platelet accumulation and the generation of fibrin, and neither is observed. A Video showing the process of thrombus formation in live mice is available with the full text of this article at www.

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    Persimmon Thrombophlebitis

    Colic in horses is defined as abdominal painbut it is a clinical sign rather than a diagnosis. The term colic can encompass all forms of gastrointestinal conditions which cause pain as well as other causes of abdominal pain not involving the gastrointestinal tract. The most common forms of colic are gastrointestinal in nature and are most often related to colonic disturbance, persimmon Thrombophlebitis.

    There are a variety of different causes of colic, some of which can prove fatal without surgical intervention. Colic surgery is usually an expensive procedure as it is major abdominal surgeryoften with intensive aftercare.

    Among domesticated persimmon Thrombophlebitispersimmon Thrombophlebitis, colic is the leading cause of premature death. Clinical signs of colic generally require treatment by a veterinarian. These categories can be further differentiated based on location of the lesion and underlying cause See Types of colic.

    This is characterised by a physical obstruction of the intestine, which can be due to impacted food material, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, stricture formation, or foreign bodies. The primary pathophysiological abnormality caused by this obstruction is related to the trapping of fluid within the intestine oral to the obstruction. This is due to the large amount of fluid produced in the upper gastrointestinal tract, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, and the fact that this is primarily re-absorbed in parts of the intestine downstream from the obstruction.

    The first problem with this degree of fluid loss from circulation is one of decreased plasma volume, leading to a reduced cardiac outputand acid-base disturbances. The intestine becomes distended due to the trapped fluid and gas production from bacteria. It is this distension, and subsequent activation of stretch receptors within the intestinal wall, that leads to the associated pain.

    With progressive distension of the intestinal persimmon Thrombophlebitis, there is occlusion of blood vessels, firstly the less rigid veins, then arteries. This impairment of blood supply leads to hyperemia and congestionand ultimately to ischaemic necrosis and cellular death. The poor blood supply also has effects on the vascular endotheliumleading to an increased permeability which first leaks plasma and eventually blood into the intestinal lumen.

    In the opposite fashion, gram-negative bacteria and endotoxins can enter the bloodstream, leading to further systemic effects, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Strangulating obstructions have all the same pathological features as a simple obstruction, but the blood supply is immediately affected. Both arteries and veins may be affected persimmon Thrombophlebitis, or progressively as in simple obstruction.

    Common causes of strangulating obstruction are intussusceptionspersimmon Thrombophlebitis, torsion or volvulusand displacement of intestine through a hole, such as a herniaa mesenteric rent, or the epiploic foramen. In a non-strangulating infarction, blood supply to a section of intestine is occluded, without any obstruction to ingesta present within the intestinal lumen. The most common cause is infection with Strongylus vulgaris larvaewhich primarily develop within the cranial mesenteric artery.

    Inflammation along any portion of the GI tract can lead to colic. This leads to pain and possibly stasis persimmon Thrombophlebitis peristalsis Ileuswhich can cause excessive accumulation of fluid in the gastrointestinal tract. This is a functional rather than mechanical blockage of the intestine, but like the mechanical blockage seen persimmon Thrombophlebitis simple obstructions, it can have serious effects including severe dehydration. Inflammation of the bowel may lead to increased permeability and subsequent endotoxemia.

    The underlying cause of inflammation may be due to infection, toxin, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, or trauma, and may require special treatment in order to resolve the colic. Ulceration of the mucosal surface occurs very commonly in the stomach gastric ulcerationdue to damage from stomach acid or alteration in protective mechanisms of the stomach, and is usually not life-threatening.

    The persimmon Thrombophlebitis dorsal colon may also develop ulceration, usually secondary to excessive NSAID use, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, which alters the homeostatic balance of prostaglandins that protect the mucosa.

    This list of types of colic is not exhaustive but details some of the types which may be encountered. Gas colic, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, also known as tympanic colic, is the result of gas buildup within the horse's digestive tract due to excessive fermentation within the intestines or a decreased ability to move gas through it. The clinical signs of these forms of colic are generally mild, transient, [7] and respond well to spasmolytic medications, such as buscopanand analgesics.

    Gas colics usually self-correct, [7] but there is the risk of subsequent torsion volvulus or displacement of the bowel due to gas distention, which causes this affected piece of bowel to rise upward in the abdomen.

    Abdominal distention may occasionally be seen in adult horses in the flank region, if the cecum or large colon is affected, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. This is caused by an impaction of food material water, grass, hay, grain at a part of the large bowel known as the pelvic flexure of the left colon where the intestine takes a degree turn and narrows. Impaction generally responds well to medical treatment, usually requiring a few days of fluids and laxatives such as mineral oil, [8] but more severe cases may not recover without surgery.

    If left untreated, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, severe impaction colic can be fatal. This condition could be diagnosed on rectal examination by a veterinarian. Impactions are often associated with the winter months because horses do not drink as much water and eat drier material hay instead of grassproducing drier intestinal contents that are more likely to get stuck.

    The ileum is the last part of the small intestine that ends in the cecum. Ileal impaction can be caused by obstruction of ingesta. Coastal bermuda hay is associated with impactions in this most persimmon Thrombophlebitis adj.

    Horses show intermittent colic, with moderate to severe signs and with time, distended small intestinal loops on rectal. Often the impaction can not be felt on rectal due to distended small intestinal loops that block the examiner. Prognosis for survival is good. Ileal hypertrophy occurs when the circular and longitudinal layers of the ileal intestinal wall hypertrophyand can also occur with jejunal hypertrophy.

    The mucosa remains normal, so malabsorption is not expected to occur in this disease. This is most likely to occur in horses that graze sandy or heavily grazed pastures leaving only dirt to ingest.

    Foals, weanlings, and yearlings are most likely to ingest sand, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, and are therefore most commonly seen with sand colic. The ingested sand or dirt most commonly accumulates in the pelvic flexure, [7] but may also occur in the right dorsal colon and the cecum of the large intestines.

    Persimmon Thrombophlebitis sand can cause colic signs similar to other impactions of the large colon, and often causes abdominal distention [13] As the sand or dirt irritates the lining of the bowel it can cause diarrhea. The weight and abrasion of the sand or dirt causes the bowel wall to become inflamed and can cause a reduction in colonic motility and, in severe cases, leads to peritonitis. Diagnosis is usually persimmon Thrombophlebitis by history, environmental conditions, auscultation of the ventral abdomen, radiographs, ultrasound, or fecal examination See Diagnosis.

    More recently veterinarians treat cases with specific synbiotic pro and prebiotic and psyllium combinations. Psyllium is the most effective medical treatment. Horses should not be fed directly on the ground in areas where sand, dirt and silt are prevalent, [13] although small amounts of sand persimmon Thrombophlebitis dirt may still be ingested by grazing. Management to reduce sand intake and prophylactic treatments with sand removal products are recommended by most veterinarians. Such prophylaxis includes feeding a pelleted psyllium for one week every 4—5 weeks.

    Other methods include feeding the horse before turnout, and turning the horses out in the middle of the day persimmon Thrombophlebitis they are more likely to stand in the shade rather than graze. Primary cecal impactions usually consist of dry feed material, with the horse slowly developing clinical signs over several days. Horses usually show clinical signs 3—5 days post general anesthesia, including decreased appetite, decreased manure persimmon Thrombophlebitis, and gas persimmon Thrombophlebitis the cecum which can be auscultated.

    Diagnosis is usually made by rectal palpation. Treatment includes fluid therapy and persimmon Thrombophlebitis, but surgery is indicated if there is severe distention of the cecum or if medical therapy does not improve the situation, persimmon Thrombophlebitis.

    Gastric impactions are relatively rare, [17] and occur when food is not cleared at the appropriate rate. It is most commonly associated with ingestion of foods that swell after eating or feeds that are coarse bedding or poor quality roughagepoor dental care, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, poor mastication, inadequate drinking, ingestion of a foreign object, and alterations in the normal function of the stomach, persimmon Thrombophlebitis.

    Persimmonswhich form a sticky gel in the stomach, and haylage, have both been associated with it, [8] [18] as has wheat, barley, mesquite beans, and beet pulp. Small colon impactions represent a small number of colics in the horse, and are usually caused by obstruction from fecalithsenterolithspersimmon Thrombophlebitis, and meconium.

    However, these impactions often require surgical intervention, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, and the surgeon will empty the colon either by enterotomy persimmon Thrombophlebitis by lubricants and massage. Large colon impactions typically occur at the pelvic flexure and right dorsal colon, [11] two areas where the lumen of the intestine narrows.

    Large colon impactions are most frequently seen in horses that have recently had a sudden decrease in exercise, such as after a musculoskeletal injury. Aldosterone secretion activates absorption of fluid from the colon, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, decreasing the water content of the ingesta and increasing risk of impaction, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Horses with a large colon impaction usually have mild signs that slowly get worse if the impaction does not resolve, and can produce severe signs.

    Diagnosis is often made by rectal palpation of the mass, although this is not always accurate since a portion of the colon is not palpable on rectal, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Additional sections of intestines may be distended if there is fluid backup. Manure production decreases, and if passed, is usually firm, dry and mucus covered. Analgesics usually can control the abdominal discomfort, but may become less efficacious over time if the impaction does not resolve.

    Horses that do not improve or become very painful, or those that have large amounts of gas distention, are recommended to undergo surgery to remove the impaction via enterotomy persimmon Thrombophlebitis the pelvic flexure, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Enteroliths in horses are round 'stones' of mineral deposits, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, usually of persimmon Thrombophlebitis magnesium phosphate struvite [15] but sometimes of magnesium vivainite and some amounts of sodium, potassium, sulfur and calcium, [11] which develop within the horse's gastrointestinal tract.

    They can form around a piece of ingested foreign material, such as a small nidus of wire or sand similar persimmon Thrombophlebitis how an oyster forms a pearl. These horse may also have had a history of passing enteroliths in their manure. In rare instances, persimmon Thrombophlebitis, enteroliths may be palpated on rectal examination, usually if they are present in the small colon.

    Persimmon Thrombophlebitis are hard formations of ingest that obstruct persimmon Thrombophlebitis GI tract, and may require surgery to resolve. These are most commonly seen in miniature horses, ponies, and foals. A displacement occurs persimmon Thrombophlebitis a portion of the large colon—usually the pelvic flexure—moves to an abnormal location.

    There are four main displacements described in equine medicine:. Persimmon Thrombophlebitis cause of persimmon Thrombophlebitis is not definitively known, but one explanation is that the bowel becomes abnormally distended with gas from excessive fermentation of grain, a change in the microbiota secondary to antibiotic use, or a buildup of gas secondary to impaction which results in a shift in the bowel to an abnormal position.

    Displacement is usually diagnosed using a combination of findings from the rectal exam and ultrasonography. Systemic analgesics, antispasmodics, and sedation are often used to keep the horse comfortable during this time. At times anesthesia and a rolling procedure, in which the horse is placed in left lateral recumbency and rolled to right lateral recumbency while Krampfadern nach der Operation tragen Kompressionswäsche, can also be used to try to shift the colon off of the nephrosplenic ligament.

    Reoccurrence can occur with all types of displacements: A volvulus is a twist along the axis of the mesentery, a torsion is a twist along the longitudinal axis of the persimmon Thrombophlebitis. It is most likely to be either small intestine or part of the colon. Occlusion of the blood supply means that it is a painful condition causing rapid deterioration and requiring emergency surgery. Volvulus of the large colon usually occurs where the mesentery attaches to the body wall, but may also occur at the diaphragmatic or sternal flexures, with rotations up to degrees reported.

    Small intestinal volvulus is thought to be caused by a change persimmon Thrombophlebitis local peristalsis, or due to a lesion that the mesentery may twist around such as an ascarid impactionand usually involves the distal jejunum and ileum, persimmon Thrombophlebitis. Intussusception is a form of colic in which a piece of persimmon Thrombophlebitis "telescopes" within a portion of itself because a section is paralyzed, so the motile section pushes itself into the non-motile section.

    It is almost always associated with parasitic infections, usually tapeworms, [6] [7] [15] although small masses and foreign bodies may also be responsible, [15] and is most common in young horses usually around 1 year of age. Horses with the acute form of colic usually have a duration of colic less than 24 hours long, while chronic cases have mild but intermittent colic.

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